Apprendre la Langue Française (103e partie): la conjonction–que

Source: french.about.com

The French word que, which contracts to qu’ in front of a vowel or mute h, has numerous uses and meanings. This summary includes links to detailed information on each use of que.

Comparative and superlative adverb

Il est plus grand que moi. He is taller than I.

Conjunction

Je pense que tu as raison. I think that you’re right.

Conjunctive phrases

Je l’ai fait parce que j’avais faim.  I did it because I was hungry.

Exclamative adverb

Que tu es grand !  You’re so tall!

Indefinite relative pronoun

Ce que j’aime, c’est l’aventure.  What I love is adventure.

Indirect commands

Que le bonheur vous sourie.  May happiness smile upon you.

Interrogative phrase

Est-ce que tu es prêt ?  Are you ready?

Interrogative pronoun

Que veux-tu ?  What do you want?

Negative adverb

Je n’ai que 10 euros.  I only have ten euros.

Relative pronoun

J’ai perdu le livre que tu m’as acheté.  I lost the book that you bought me.

When the French word que is used as a conjunction, it is equivalent to “that”:

Je pense qu’il a raison.I think (that) he is right.

Nous espérons que tu seras là. We hope (that) you’ll be there.

C’est dommage qu’il ne soit pas prêt. It’s too bad (that) he’s not ready.

Note that “that” is optional in English, but que cannot be omitted.

With verbs of wanting followed by que, the French structure is the same as the above, but the English translation uses an infinitive:

Il veut qu’elle aide.  He wants her to help.

J’aimerais que tu sois là. I would like (for) you to be there.

Que can be used to repeat a previously-stated conjunction (like comme, quand, or si) or conjunctive phrase:

Comme tu es là et que ton frère ne l’est pas…Since you’re here and (since) your brother isn’t…

Je lui ai téléphoné quand j’étais rentré et que j’avais fait mes devoirs. I called him when I got home and (when) I’d done my homework.

Si j’ai de l’argent et que mes parents sont d’accord, j’irai en France l’année prochaine. If I have money and (if) my parents agree, I will go to France next year.

Pour que tu comprennes la situation et que tu sois à l’aise…So that you understand the situation and (so that) you feel comfortable…

Que can begin a clause and be followed by the subjunctive, with various meanings:

Que = whether

Tu le feras, que tu le veuilles ou non.You’ll do it whether you want to or not.

Que tu viennes ou que tu ne viennes pas, ça m’est égal. Whether you come or or not, I don’t care.

Que = so that

Fais tes devoirs, qu’on puisse sortir.Do your homework so that we can go out.

Téléphone-lui, qu’il sache où nous rejoindre. Call him, so that he knows where to meet us.

Que = when

Nous venions de manger qu’il a téléphoné.We had just eaten when he called.

Je travaillais depuis seulement une heure qu’il y a eu un exercice d’évacuation. I had been working for only an hour when there was a fire drill.

Que = third person order

Qu’il pleuve !Let / May it rain!

Qu’elle me laisse tranquille ! I wish she would leave me alone!

Que can be used to emphasize oui or non:

Que oui !

     

Yes indeed! Certainly! You bet!

Que non !  No way! Certainly not! Not at all!

Que can represent something that was just said:

Que tu crois !(informal) That’s what you think!

Que je le fais tout seul ? C’est absurde ! (You think) I should do it all alone? That’s absurd!

Que can be used instead of inversion with direct speech and certain adverbs:

« Donne-le-moi ! » qu’il me dit (me dit-il)

“Give it to me!” he said

Peut-être qu’il sera là (Peut-être sera-t-il là)

Perhaps he will be there

Apprendre la Langue Française (Part 76): improve your french

Improve your French listening comprehension.

1) Listen first

If you want to test your aural comprehension and/or you feel comfortable with your listening skills, listen to the sound file one or more times, to see how much you understand. Then read through the transcript and/or translation, either before or while listening to the sound file again, to fill in any gaps.

2) Read first

Students who don’t feel up to the challenge of listening first might be better off doing just the opposite: read or skim the transcript first to get an idea of what it’s about, and then listen to the sound file. You can listen while reading along with the transcript and/or translation, or just listen and then go back to the transcript, to see how much you were able to pick up.

3) Listen and read

This third option is the best for students with very weak listening skills. Open up the transcript or translation in a new window, and then start the sound file so that you can follow the script as you listen. This will help to make the connection between what you are hearing and what it means. (This is similar to watching a French movie while reading the English subtitles.)

The “listen first” technique is the most challenging. If you feel confident in your listening skills or you’d like get an idea of how good they are, that method is best. Less advanced students, however, may find that listening first is too difficult and even frustrating. If your listening skills are weak, you will likely find it helpful to see the transcript and/or translation before or while listening. It doesn’t matter which method you choose – your goal here is to improve your listening comprehension. Just keep listening and checking the transcript as many times as it takes until finally you can understand the sound file without looking at the transcript. If you do these kinds of exercises regularly, I guarantee that your listening comprehension will improve.

Improve your French pronunciation

Know your genders. One of the most important things to remember about French nouns is that each one has a gender. While there are a few patterns that let you know what the gender of a particular word is, for most words it’s just a matter of memorization. Therefore, the best way to know whether a word is masculine or feminine is to make all your vocabulary lists with an article, so that you learn the gender with the word itself. Always write une chaise or la chaise (chair), rather than just chaise. When you learn the gender as part of the word, you’ll always know what gender it is later on when you need to use it.

This is particularly important with what I call dual-gender nouns. Dozens of French pairs have different meanings depending on whether they are masculine or feminine, so yes, gender really does make a difference.

Chance encounters. When reading French, it’s very likely that you’ll come across a lot of new vocabulary. While looking up every single word you don’t know in the dictionary may disrupt your comprehension of the story, you might not understand anyway without some of those key terms. So you have a few options:

1. Underline the words and look them up later
2. Write down the words and look them up later
3. Look up the words as you go

Underlining is the best technique, because when you look the words up later, you have the context right there in the case of words with multiple meanings. If that’s not an option, try to write down the sentence in your vocabulary list, rather than just the word itself. Once you’ve looked everything up, read the article again, with or without referring back to your list, to see how much more you understand now. Another option is to look up all the words after each paragraph or each page, rather than waiting until you’ve read the whole thing.

Listening can also offer up a lot of new vocabulary. Again, it’s a good idea to write down the phrase or sentence so that you have context to understand the meaning provided.

Get a decent dictionary. If you’re still using one of those little pocket dictionaries, you need to seriously consider an upgrade. When it comes to French dictionaries, bigger really is better.

Practice French Vocabulary. Once you’ve learned all this new French vocabulary, you need to practice it. The more you practice, the easier it will be for you to find just the right word when speaking and writing, as well as to understand when listening and reading. Some of these activities might seem boring or silly, but the point is simply to get you used to seeing, hearing, and speaking the words – here are some ideas:

1) Say it out loud.
When you come across a new word while reading a book, newspaper, or French lesson, say it out loud. Seeing new words is good, but saying them out loud is even better, because it gives you practice both speaking and listening to the sound of the word.

2) Write it out.
Spend 10 to 15 minutes every day writing lists of vocabulary. You can work with different themes, such as “kitchen items” or “automotive terms,” or just practice words that you continue to have trouble with. After you write them down, say them out loud. Then write them again, say them again, and repeat 5 or 10 times. When you do this, you’ll see the words, feel what it’s like to say them, and hear them, all of which will help you the next time you are actually speaking French.

3) Use flashcards.
Make a set of flashcards for new vocabulary by writing the French term on one side (along with an article, in the case of nouns) and the English translation on the other.

4) Label everything.
Surround yourself with French by labeling your home and office with stickers or post-it notes.

5) Use it in a sentence.
When you go over your vocab lists, don’t just look at the words – put them into sentences. Try making 3 different sentences with each word, or try to create a paragraph or two using all the new words together.

6) Sing along.
Set some vocabulary to a simple tune, like “Twinkle Twinkle Little Star” or “The Itsy Bitsy Spider,” and sing it in the shower, in your car on the way to work/school, or while washing the dishes.

7)Mots fléchés
French-style crossword puzzles, mots fléchés, are a great way to challenge your knowledge of French vocabulary.

8) Test yourself.
See how well you know your words by taking a few French vocabulary quizzes.

9) Vocabulary Books. Another way to learn and practice French vocabulary is with specialized vocabulary books.

Improve your French verb conjugations

Conjugating French verbs in a workbook or letter is one thing, but remembering individual verb conjugations when you’re speaking is another matter entirely. Here are some tips to help you get better at conjugating French verbs.

1) Learn the Conjugations

Before you can even start to worry about speaking French with correctly conjugated verbs, you have to learn the conjugations.

2) Practice Conjugating

Once you’ve learned the conjugations, you need to practice them. The more you practice, the easier it will be for you to “grab” the right conjugation during spontaneous discussion. Some of these activities might seem boring or silly, but the point is simply to get you used to seeing, hearing, and speaking the conjugations – here are some ideas:

Say them out loud. When you come across verbs while reading a book, newspaper, or French lesson, say the subject and verb out loud. Reading conjugations is good, but saying them out loud is even better, because it gives you practice both speaking and listening to the conjugation.

Write them out. Spend 10 to 15 minutes every day conjugating verbs along with the appropriate subject pronouns. You can practice writing either the conjugations for several different tenses/moods of a single verb, or all of the, for example, imperfect conjugations for several verbs. After you write them out, say them out loud. Then write them again, say them again, and repeat 5 or 10 times. When you do this, you’ll see the conjugations, feel what it’s like to say them, and hear them, all of which will help you the next time you are actually speaking French.

Conjugations for everyone. Pick up a newspaper or book and look for a verb conjugation. Say it out loud, then reconjugate the verb for all the other grammatical persons. So if you see il est (he is), you’ll write and/or speak all of the present tense conjugations for être. When you’re done, look for another verb and do the same thing.

Change the tense. This is similar to the above, but this time you reconjugate the verb into other tenses you want to practice. For example, if you see the third person singular present tense il est, change it to il a été (passé composé), il était (imperfect), and il sera (future). Write and/or speak these new conjugations, then look for another verb.

Sing along. Set some conjugations to a simple tune, like “Twinkle Twinkle Little Star” or “The Itsy Bitsy Spider,” and sing it in the shower, in your car on the way to work/school, or while washing the dishes.

Use flashcards. Make a set of flashcards for the verbs you have the most trouble with by writing a subject pronoun and the infinitive on one side and the correct conjugation on the other. Then test yourself by looking at the first side and saying the subject and its conjugation out loud, or by looking at the conjugation and deciding which subject pronoun(s) it’s conjugated for.

Test yourself. See how well you know your conjugations.  Another way to practice conjugations is with specialized French verb workbooks.

Improve your French vocabulary

Speaking French is more than just knowing the vocabulary and grammar rules – you also need to pronounce the letters correctly. Unless you started learning French as a child, you’re unlikely to ever sound like a native speaker, but it’s certainly not impossible for adults to speak with a decent French accent. Here are some ideas to help you improve your French pronunciation.

1) Learn French Sounds.

Basic French pronunciation – The first thing you need to do is understand how each letter is usually pronounced in French.

Letters in detail – As in English, some letters have two or more sounds, and letter combinations often make completely new sounds.

French accents – Accents don’t show up on certain letters just for decoration – they often give clues about how to pronounce those letters.

International Phonetic Alphabet – Familiarize yourself with the pronunciation symbols used in French dictionaries.

2) Get a decent dictionary

When you see a new word, you can look it up to find out how it’s pronounced. But if you’re using a little pocket dictionary, you’ll find that many words aren’t there. When it comes to French dictionaries, bigger really is better. Some French dictionary software even includes sound files.

2) Pronunciation Preparation and Practice

Once you’ve learned how to pronounce everything, you need to practice it. The more you speak, the easier it will be to make all of those sounds. Here are some techniques that can help you in your French accent improvement project.

3) Listen to French
The more you listen to French, the better you’ll get at hearing and distinguishing between unfamiliar sounds, and the easier it will be for you to produce them yourself.

4) Listen and repeat

Sure, this isn’t something you’d do in real life, but mimicking words or phrases over and over is an excellent way to develop your pronunciation skills. My French audio dictionary has 2,500 sound files of words and short phrases.

5) Listen to yourself

Record yourself speaking French and then listen carefully to the playback – you might discover pronunciation mistakes that you’re not aware of when you speak.

6) Read out loud

If you’re still stumbling over words with tricky letter combinations or lots of syllables, you definitely need more practice. Try reading out loud to get used to making all of those new sounds.

7) Pronunciation Problems

Depending on your native language, certain French sounds and pronunciation concepts are more difficult than others.

8) Speak Like the Natives

When you learn French, you learn the correct way to say everything, not necessarily the way the French actually say it.

9) Pronunciation Tools
Unlike grammar and vocabulary, pronunciation is something that you can’t learn by reading (although there are some excellent French pronunciation books). But you really do need to interact with native speakers. Ideally, you would do this face to face, such as by going to France or another French-speaking country, taking a class, working with a tutor, or joining the Alliance Française.

If those truly are not an option, at the very least you need to listen to French, such as with these tools:
* French listening online
* French audio books
* French audio magazines
* French audio tapes and CDs
* French radio
* French software
* French TV

The Bottom Line
Getting a good French accent is all about practice – both passive (listening) and active (speaking). Practice really does make perfect.

Apprendre la Langue Française (Part 72): le verbe – savoir (l’usage et les expressions)

Source: french.about.com

Savoir is one of the most common French verbs. It is irregular in conjugation and literally means “to know.” Savoir has different meanings in certain tenses as well as some other tricky aspects to it.

In general, savoir means “to know” in many senses that this verb is used in English, including

* to know a fact
Anne sait la date. Anne knows the date.

* to know by heart
Sais-tu ce poème ? Do you know this poem by heart?

* to know how (to do something)
Je ne sais pas nager. I don’t know how to swim.

* to realize
Il ne sait pas ce qu’il dit. He doesn’t know (realize) what he’s saying.

In the passé composé, savoir means “to learn” or “to find out”:

J’ai su qu’il avait menti. I found out that he’d lied.
Il n’a jamais su la vérité. He never found out the truth.

In the conditional, savoir is a very formal equivalent of “to be able to”:

Sauriez-vous me diriger vers… Could you possibly direct me toward…
Je ne saurais pas vous aider. I’m afraid I can’t help you.

Savoir is commonly confused with connaître, which also means “to know” but is used in different circumstances.

Savoir is one of a handful of French verbs that can be made negative with just ne, rather than ne… pas.

Je ne sais si je devrais le faire. I don’t know if I should do it.
Je ne saurais le faire. I wouldn’t know how to do it.

Conjugations (present tense)

je sais
tu sais
il sait
nous savons
vous savez
ils savent

Apprendre la Langue Française (Part 71): les prépositions – avec et chez

Source: french.about.com

Avec is the French equivalent of with. It can express:

Accompaniment

J’irai avec toi. I’ll go with you.
Il est d’accord avec nous. He agrees with us.

Cause
On oublie tout avec le temps. One forgets everything in time.
Tu m’énerves avec ce bruit. You’re bothering me with this noise.

Something in addition: avec ça

Et avec ça ? Anything else?
J’ai froid et avec ça j’ai faim. I’m cold, and besides that I’m hungry.

The equivalent of an adverb: avec + noun

avec joie – joyfully
avec colère – angrily

Expressions with avec:

se fâcher avec quelqu’un – to get mad at someone
se lever avec le jour – to get up at the crack of dawn
se mettre en rapport avec – to get in touch with
prendre des gants avec quelqu’un – to handle someone with kid gloves

Chez is a great French word and can mean any of the following:

1. at / to the house of

chez mon oncle at / to my uncle’s house
chez moi at / to my house, (at) home

2. at / to the office / store of

chez le médecin at / to the doctor’s office
chez le boucher at / to the butcher’s

3. among

(une coutume) chez les Français (a custom) among the French

4. in the work / writings of

chez Molière in Molière’s work / writing

5. for / with

chez lui, c’est une habitude it’s a habit with him
c’est bizarre chez un enfant it’s strange for a child

Apprendre la Langue Française (Part 70): le préposition – dans

Source: french.about.com

The French preposition dans must be followed by an article or some other determiner – it cannot be followed directly by a noun. It usually means in, but can indicate all of the following:

1. Physical location

dans la boîte – in the box
dans la rue – in the street
boire dans une tasse – to drink from a cup
prendre quelque chose dans une boît – to take something from a box
copier quelque chose dans un livre – to copy something from a book
dans l’avion – on the plane
mettre quelque chose dans le tiroir – to put something in the drawer
monter dans le train – to get on the train
voir quelqu’un dans l’escalier – to see someone on the stairs

2. Figurative location

dans la situation actuelle – in the current situation
dans ces conditions – in/under these conditions

3. Time (en vs. dans)

dans la semaine – during the week
dans la journée – during the day
dans une semaine – in one week

Expressions with dans:

dans les coulisses – behind the scenes
dans le doute – when in doubt
être dans le pétrin – to be in a jam
dans mes projets – in my plans
dans le sens de la longueur – lengthwise

The prepositions en and dans can both be used to express time and location in French, but their uses are completely different.

En expresses the length of time an action takes. Note that this means the verb is usually in the present or past.

Je peux faire le lit en 5 minutes. I can make the bed in 5 minutes.
Il a lu le livre en une heure. He read the book in an hour.
J’ai appris à danser en un an. I learned how to dance in a year.

En is used to express the month, season, (except au printemps) or year in which an action takes place:

Nous voyageons en avril. We travel in April.
Il arrivera en hiver. He will arrive in the winter.

En can mean in or to when followed directly by a noun that doesn’t need an article:

Vous allez en prison ! You’re going to prison!
Il est en classe. He’s in school.

En also means to or in with some states, provinces, and countries:

J’habite en Californie. I live in California.
Je vais en France. I’m going to France.

Dans indicates the amount of time before which an action will occur in the future. Note that this means the verb is usually in the present or future.

Nous partons dans dix minutes. We’re leaving in 10 minutes.
Il reviendra dans une heure. He’ll be back in an hour.
Elle va commencer dans une semaine. She’s going to start in a week.

Dans refers to something that occurs within a decade:

Dans les années soixantes… In the sixties…

Dans means in a location when followed by an article plus noun:

Il est dans la maison. He’s in the house.
Qu’est-ce qui est dans la boîte ? What’s in the box?

Dans also means to or in with some states and provinces:

J’habite dans le Maine. I live in Maine.
Je vais dans l’Ontario. I’m going to Ontario.