Apprendre la Langue Française (Part 88): ordres des mots
December 31, 2010 Leave a comment
The order of words in a French sentence can be very confusing, due to dual-verb constructions, object and adverbial pronouns, and negative structures.
French has two kinds of two-verb constructions:
- Compound verb tenses
- Dual-verb constructions (conjugated verb + infinitive)
Dual-verb are constructions consisting of a conjugated semi-auxiliary verb, such as pouvoir, devoir (these two are called modal verbs in English), vouloir, aller, espérer, and promettre, followed by a second verb in the infinitive. The two verbs may or may not be joined by a preposition.
Dual-verb constructions have a slightly different word order than compound verbs.
I. Object and reflexive pronouns are usually* and adverbial pronouns are always placed between the two verbs, after the preposition (if any) that follows the conjugated verb.
- Je vais te le donner. I’m going to give it to you.
Je dois me brosser les dents. I need to brush my teeth.
Nous espérons y aller. We hope to go there.
Je promets de le manger. I promise to eat it.
Il continuera à t’en parler. He’ll continue to talk to you about it.
*Sometimes the object pronoun must precede the first verb. In order to determine this, think about which verb is being modified: remember that in French, the object pronoun has to go in front of the verb it modifies. The wrong place may give you a grammatically incorrect sentence or may even change the meaning of the sentence.
|X Il aide à nous travailler.
Il nous aide à travailler.
|X He’s helping work us.
He’s helping us work.
|X Elle invite à me venir.
Elle m’invite à venir.
|X She’s inviting to come me.
She’s inviting me to come.
|X Je promets de te manger.
Je te promets de manger.
Je promets de le manger.
Je te promets de le manger.
|X I promise to eat you.
I promise you that I’ll eat.
I promise that I’ll eat it.
I promise you that I’ll eat it.
II. Negative structures surround the conjugated verb and precede the preposition (if any).
Je ne vais pas étudier. I’m not going to study.
Nous n’espérons jamais voyager. We never hope to travel.
Je ne promets que de travailler. I only promise to work.
Il ne continue pas à lire. He’s not continuing to read.
III. In a sentence with pronouns and a negative structure, the order is:
- ne + object pronoun (if applicable) + conjugated verb + part two of negative structure + preposition (if any) + object pronoun(s) + adverbial pronoun(s) + infinitiveJe ne vais jamais te le donner. I’m never going to give it to you.
Nous n’espérons pas y aller. We don’t hope to go there.
Il ne continue pas à y travailler. He isn’t continuing to work there.
Je ne promets pas de le manger. I don’t promise to eat it.
Je ne te promets pas de le manger. I don’t promise you that I’ll eat it.
Je ne te promets pas d’y aller. I don’t promise you that I’ll go there.